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Linda Chalker-Scott Literature on Polyacrylamide Gels

Literature on Agricultural, Horticultural, and Medial Uses of Polyacrylamide Gels

Compiled by Dr. Linda Chalker-Scott, Ph.D.

Associate Professor and Extension Urban Horticulturist, WSU Puyallup Research and Extension Center

Cross-linked PAM Hydrogel Effects on Plants

  • Abbey, T. and T. Rathier. 2005. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi, biostimulants and water absorbing polymers on the growth and survival of four landscape plant species. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 23(2): 108-111.
  • Al-Humaid, A.I. and A.E. Moftah. 2007. Effects of hydrophilic polymer on the survival of buttonwood seedlings grown under drought stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 30(1-3): 53-66.
  • Booth, D.T. 2005. Establishing Wyoming big sagebrush seed orchards on reclaimed mined land. Native Plants Journal 6(3): 247-253.
  • Chen, S., M. Zommorodi, E., Fritz, S. Wang and A. Huttermann. 2004. Hydrogel modified uptake of salt ions and calcium in Populus euphratica under saline conditions. Trees: Structure and Function 18(2): 175-183.
  • Frantz, J.M., J.C. Locke, D.S. Pitchay and C.R. Krause. 2005. Actual performance versus theoretical advantages of polyacrylamide hydrogel throughout bedding plant production. HortScience 40(7): 2040-2046.
  • Gilman, E.F. 2004. Effects of amendments, soil additives, and irrigation on tree survival and growth. Journal of Arboriculture 30(5): 301-310.
  • Hodges, L., E. Daningsih and J.R. Brandle. 2006. Comparison of an antitranspirant spray, a polyacrylamide gel, and wind protection on early growth of muskmelon. HortScience 41(2): 361-366.
  • Holliman, P.J., J.A. Clark, J.C. Williamson and D.L. Jones. 2005. Model and field studies of the degradation of cross-linked polyacrylamide gels used during the revegetation of slate waste. Science of the Total Environment 336(1/3): 13-24.
  • Lu, J., X.F. Huang, Z.J. Tang and W.H. Zhan. 2004. Economic feasibility of PAM application in rain-fed agriculture in the loess regions of Northwest China. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 20(2): 97-100.
  • Lu, X.Q., F.G. Min, J.M. Yang, J. Li and X.J. Chen. 2003. Polyacrylamide made slow-release fertilizer’s effects on Zea mays. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College 20(2): 124-127.
  • Newhall, R.L., T.A. Monaco, W.H. Horton, R.D. Harrison and R.J. Page. 2004. Rehabilitating salt-desert ecosystems following wildfire and wind erosion. Rangelands 26(1): 3-7.
  • Nissen, M.J. and R.K. San-Martin. 2004. Use of polyacrylamides and irrigation on hydric management of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.). Uso de poliacrilamidas y el riego en el manejo hidrico de lechugas ( Lactuca sativa L.). Agro Sur 32(2): 1-12.
  • Rolando, C.A., M. Hitchins and S. Olivier. 2006. Methods to improve late season planting of Pinus patula : results up to six months after planting. ICFR Bulletin Series (08/2006): 9 pp.
  • Rowe, E.C., J.C. Williamson, D.L. Jones, P. Holliman and J.R. Healey. 2005. Initial tree establishment on blocky quarry waste ameliorated with hydrogel or slate processing fines. Journal of Environmental Quality 34(3): 994-1003.
  • Sarvas, M. 2003. Effect of desiccation on the root system of Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.) seedlings and a possibility of using hydrogel Stockosorb ® for its protection. Journal of Forest Science 49(11): 531-536.
  • Shao, J., S.L. Chen, R.G. Wang, X.R. Zhang and J. Jiang. 2007. Enhancement of hydrogel on salt resistance of Populus popularis ’35-44′ and its mechanism. Journal of Beijing Forestry University 29(1): 79-84.
  • Sojka, R.E., D.W. Morishita, J.A. Foerster and M.J. Wille. 2003. Weed seed transport and weed establishment as affected by polyacrylamide in furrow-irrigated corn. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 319-326.
  • Stamps, R.H. and D.M. McColley. 2005. Effects of soil incorporation of polyacrylamide copolymer on newly planted leatherleaf fern ( Rumohra adiantiformis [Forst.] Ching). Proceedings of the Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture 48: 173-176.
  • Syvertsen, J.P. and J.M. Dunlop. 2004. Hydrophilic gel amendments to sand soil can increase growth and nitrogen uptake efficiency of citrus seedlings. HortScience 39(2): 267-271.
  • Tang, Z.J., T.W. Lei, X.Y. Zhao, Z.G. Pan and N. Li. 2006. Impacts of polyacrylamide application on soil water status of loess and the growth of corn. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 22(4): 216-219.
  • Viero, P.W.M. and K.M. Little. 2006. A comparison of different planting methods, including hydrogels, and their effect on eucalypt survival and initial growth in South Africa. Southern African Forestry Journal 208: 5-13.
  • Wallace, A., G.A. Wallace and A.M. Abouzamzam. 1986. Effects of excess levels of a polymer as a soil conditioner on yields and mineral nutrition of plants. Soil Science 141(5): 377-380.
  • Wang, Y.F., F.G. Han and G.S. Liu. 2004. Effect of polyacrylamide on physiological characteristics, yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco in drought areas. Journal of Henan Agricultural University, 38(3): 263-266, 284.
  • Yonts, C.D. 2006. Sugarbeet response to irrigation method and polymer placed in the seed furrow. Journal of Sugar Beet Research 43(4): 155-166.
  • Youssef, E.M.A. 2003. Influence of hydrogels compounds on acclimatization behavior of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. vitroplants. Acta Horticulturae 608: 81-84.

Degradation of Polyacrylamide Gels

  • Ashour, I.A., M.H. Ali, F.A. Hashem and A. Sayed. 2004. Effect of biodegradation of some soil conditioners on soil properties under saline water conditions. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 42(1): 401-413.
  • Chang, L.L., D.L. Raudenbush and S.K. Dentel. 2001. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of a flocculant polymer. Water Science and Technology 44(2-3): 461-468.
  • Holliman, P.J., J.A. Clark, J.C. Williamson and D.L. Jones. 2005. Model and field studies of the degradation of cross-linked polyacrylamide gels used during the revegetation of slate waste. Science of the Total Environment 336(1/3): 13-24.
  • Mai, C., W. Schormann, A. Majcherczyk and A. Huttermann. 2004. Degradation of acrylic copolymers by white-rot fungi. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 65: 479-487.
  • Matsuoka, H., F. Ishimura, T Takeda and M. Hikuma. 2002. Isolation of polyacrylamide-degrading microorganisms from soil. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 7(5): 327-330.
  • Smith, E.A., S.L. Prues and F.W. Oehme. 1996. Environmental degradation of polyacrylamides. 1. Effects of artificial environmental conditions: Temperature, light, and pH. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 35(2): 121-135.
  • Sojka, R.E., J.A. Entry and J.J. Fuhrmann. 2006. The influence of high application rates of polyacrylamide on microbial metabolic potential in an agricultural soil. Applied Soil Ecology 32(2): 243-252.
  • Stahl, J.D., M.D. Cameron, J. Haselbach and S.D. Aust. 2000. Biodegradation of superabsorbent polymers in soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 7(2): 83-88.
  • Wolter, M., C.I.D. Wiesche, F. Zadrazil, S. Hey, J. Haselbach and E. Schnug. 2002. Biological degradability of synthetic superabsorbent soil conditioners. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 52(1) : 43-52.

Polyacrylamide and Acrylamide Impacts on Human Health and Environmental Safety

  • Anonymous. 2002. Acrylamide. European Union Risk Assessment Report 24: 221 pp. Anonymous. 2002. Acrylamide. NICNAS: Priority Existing Chemical Assessment Report 23: 174 pp.
  • Anonymous. 2005. Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics. International Journal of Toxicology 24(S2): 21-50.
  • Beim, A.A. and A.M. Beim. 1994. Comparative ecological-toxicological data on determination of maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for several flocculants. Environmental Te
  • chnology 15(2): 195-198.
  • Cihak, R. and M. Vontorkova. 1988. Cytogenetic effects of acrylamide in the bone marrow of mice. Mutation Research 209(1-2): 91-94.
  • de Rosemond, S.J.C. and K. Liber. 2004. Wastewater treatment polymers identified as the toxic component of a diamond mine effluent. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(9): 2234-2242.
  • Fraire, A.E., I. Shahab, S.D. Greenberg, A. Jubran and M. Noall. 1992. Experimental polyacrylamide-induced acute injury in rat lung. Chest 102(5): 1591-1594.
  • Friedman, M. 2003. Chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of acrylamide: A review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(16): 4504-4526.
  • Hasegawa, R., K. Naitoh, Y. Kawasaki, Y. Aida, J. Momma, M. Saitoh, Y. Nakaji and Y. Kurokawa. 1990. Acute and subacute toxicity studies on 2,3-dichloropropionic acid and chlorinated polyacrylamide in rats. Water Research 24(5): 661-666.
  • King, D.J. and R.R. Noss. 1989. Toxicity of polyacrylamide and acrylamide monomer. Reviews on Environmental Health 8(1-4): 3-16.
  • Park, J.J., L.M. Kamendulis, M.A. Friedman and J.E. Klaunig. 2002. Acrylamide-induced cellular transformation. Toxicological Sciences 65(2): 177-183.
  • Schneider, R.J., R.L. Lightle, R.G. Reddy, A. Rehemtulla, B.D. Ross, R. Kopelman and M.A. Philbert. 2003. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide and sol-gel nanoparticles in rats. Toxicological Sciences 72(S1): 304.
  • Skelly, N.E. and E.R. Husser. 1978. Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide and in environmental samples by high performance liquid chromatography. Analytical Chemistry 50(14): 1959-1962.
  • van Landingham, C.B., G.A. Lawrence and A.M. Shipp. 2004. Estimates of lifetime-absorbed daily doses from the use of personal-care products containing polyacrylamide: A Monte Carlo analysis. Risk Analysis 24(3): 603-619.
  • Wallace, A., G.A. Wallace and A.M. Abouzamzam. 1986. Effects of excess levels of a polymer as a soil conditioner on yields and mineral nutrition of plants. Soil Science 141(5): 377-380.
  • Xi, T.F., C.X. Fan, X.M. Feng, Z.Y. Wan, C.R. Wang and L.L. Chou. 2006. Cytotoxicity and altered c-myc gene expression by medical polyacrylamide hydrogel. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A. 78(2): 283-290.

Alternatives to PAM Hydrogels

  • Emesih, G.C., R.G. Moreira and M.A. Barrufet. 1999. Evaluation of modified starches for improved oil recovery. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 15(3): 237-242.
  • Lazaro, N., A.L. Sevilla, S. Morales and A.M. Marques. 2003. Heavy metal biosorption by gellan gum gel beads. Water Research 37(9): 2118-2126.
  • Li, J.F., Z.Q. Song and H. Gao. 2006. Performance of sulfonated amino-formaldehyde resins on improving structure of aeolian sandy soil. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products 26(3): 17-22.
  • Sojka, R.E. J.A. Entry, W.J. Orts, D.W. Morishita, C.W. Ross and D.J. Horne. 2005. Synthetic- and bio-polymer use for runoff water quality management in irrigated agriculture. Water Science and Technology 51(3/4): 107-115.
  • Yang, Z.Q., Y.H. Zhang, P. Markland and V.C. Yang. 2002. Poly(glutamic acid) poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels prepared by photoinduced polymerization: Synthesis, characterization, and preliminary release studies of protein drugs. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 62(1): 14-21.
  • Yoshimura, T., R. Yoshimura, C. Seki and R. Fujioka. 2006. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable hydrogels based on starch and succinic anhydride. Carbohydrate Polymers 64(2): p. 345-349.

References for Sidebar 1

Medical Usage of PAM Hydrogels

    • Amin, S.P., E.S. Marmur and D.J. Goldberg. 2004. Complications from injectable polyacrylamide gel, a new nonbiodegradable soft tissue filler. Dermatologic Surgery 30(12): 1507-1509.
    • Breiting, V., A. Aasted, A. Jorgensen, P. Opitz and A. Rosetzsky. 2004. A study on patients treated with polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for facial corrections. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 28(1): 45-53.
    • Chen, W.H., L. Wang, Y.D. Lü, Z.Y. Diao, Y. Shang, G.Z. Yu, W. Li and J.Y. Han. 2006. The treatment for complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for augmentation mammaplasty by dual-plane breast augmentation. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 22(6): 424-426.
    • Christensen, L. and V. Breiting. 2005. Complications induced by polyacrylamide hydrogel injection. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 116(4): 1168-1169.
    • Christensen, L. and V. Breiting. 2006. Management of postoperative complications of breast augmentation by injected polyacrylamide hydrogel. Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery 30(1): 132.
    • Christensen, L., V. Breiting, M. Janssen, J. Vuust and E. Hogdall. 2005. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue permanent fillers. Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery 29(1): 34-48.
    • Christensen, L.H., V.B. Breiting, A. Aasted, A. Jorgensen and I. Kebuladze. 2004. Author reply to “Evstatiev, D. 2004. Late complications after injections of hydrogel in the breast. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 113(6): 1878.” Plastic Reconstructive Surgery 113(6): 1878-1879.
    • Christensen, L.H., V.B. Breiting, A. Aasted, A. Jorgensen and I. Kebuladze. 2003. Long-term effects of polyacrylamide hydrogel on human breast tissue. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 111(6): 1883-1890.
    • de Cassia-Novaes, W. and A. Berg. 2003. Experiences with a new nonbiodegradable hydrogel (Aquamid): a pilot study. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 27(5): 376-380.
    • Eisenbud, D., H. Hunter, L. Kessler and K. Zulkowski. 2003. Hydrogel wound dressings: where do we stand in 2003? Ostomy Wound Management 49(10): 52-57.
    • Evstatiev, D. 2004. Late complications after injections of hydrogel in the breast. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 113(6): 1878.
    • Feng, X.L., C.X. Yi, C. Peng, Y.M. Zhang, M. Yang, Y.R. Wang, N.Q. Guo and W.D., Zhou. 2003. Analysis and treatment of complications induced by polyacrylamide hydrogel injection. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 19(5): 331-333.
    • Feng, X.L., C.X. Yi, Y.M. Zhang, Y.M. Wang, Y.R. Wang, C. Peng, M. Yang and W.W. Li. 2004. Immunological effects of polyacrylamide hydrogel injection in human body. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 20(5): 349-350.
    • Kang, S.S., Z.W. Zhang, H.Y. Chou and H.F. Zhai. 2003. Complication of polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for facial plasty. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 19(5): 325-327.
    • Kesselring UK. 2006. Comment on: Efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel for facial soft-tissue augmentation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 118(2): 562-563.
    • Lee, C.J., S.G. Kim, L. Kim, M.S. Choi and S.I. 2004. Unfavorable findings following breast augmentation using injected polyacrylamide hydrogel. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 114(7): 1967-1968.
    • Leung, K.M., G.P. Yeoh and K.W. Chan. 2007. Breast pathology in complications associated with polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) mammoplasty. Hong Kong Medical Journal 13(2): 137-140.
    • Lin, J., Y.L. Qian, Q. Yang, Y.X. Zhang, C. Yang, B. Zhang and C. Zhu. 2007. Clinical analysis of complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for augmentation mammoplasty in 118 cases. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 23(2): 101-102.
    • Liu, Y., Y. Cen, X.W. Xu and W.Q. Duan. 2005. Analysis of complications induced by polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for augumentation mammaplasty. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 21(6): 464-466.
    • Lose, G., L. Mouritsen and J.B. Nielsen. 2006. A new bulking agent (polyacrylamide hydrogel) for treating stress urinary incontinence in women. British Journal of Urology International 98(1): 100-104.
    • Mai, H. 2006. Analysis and treatment of the complications post polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for augmentation mammaplasty. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 22(4): 276-278.
    • Niedzielska I., J. Pajak and J. Drugacz. 2006. Late complications after polyacrylamide hydrogel injection into facial soft tissues. Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery 30(3): 377-378.
    • Qiao, Q., X. Wang, J. Sun, R. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, B Sun, Y. Yan and K. Qi. 2005. Management for postoperative complications of breast augmentation by injected polyacrylamide hydrogel. Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery 29(3): 156-162.
    • Shao, J., S.L. Chen, R.G. Wang, X.R. Zhang and J. Jiang. 2007. Enhancement of hydrogel on salt resistance of Populus popularis ’35-44′ and its mechanism. Journal of Beijing Forestry University 29(1): 79-84.
    • Sun, B.D., Q. Qiao, Y. Yue, R. Zhao, J.M. Sun and K.M. Qi. 2004. Treatment of the complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for augmentation mammaplasty. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 20(3): 200-202.
    • Tang, Q., A.Y. Su, J. Gu, G. Cheng, X.X. Liu and G.Z. Yu. 2006. Removing breast foreign body resulted from augmentation with polyacrylamide hydrogel injection and silicone prosthesis implantation at one stage. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 22(3): 183-185.
    • Thyssen, J.P., L.H. Christensen and C.O. Zachariae. 2007. Cosmetic soft-tissue augmentation treatment. Ugeskr Laeger 169(23): 2198-2201.
    • von Buelow, S. and N. Pallua. 2006. Efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel for facial soft-tissue augmentation in a 2-year follow-up: a prospective multicenter study for evaluation of safety and aesthetic results in 101 patients. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 118(3 Supplemental): 85S-91S.
    • von Buelow, S., D. von Heimburg and N. Pallua. 2005. Efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel for facial soft-tissue augmentation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 116(4): 1137-1148.
    • von Buelow, S., D. von Heimburg and N. Pallua. 2005. Efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel for facial soft-tissue augmentation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 116(4): 1137-1148.
    • von Buelow, S., D. von Heimburg and N. Pallua. 2006. Efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel for facial soft-tissue augmentation. Comment in: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 118(2): 562-563.
    • Wang HY, Jiang YX, Qiao Q. 2007. Ultrasonographic value for the complications of breast augmentation with injectable polyacrylamide hydrogel technique. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 23(2): 97-100.
    • Wang, X.C., Q. Qiao, J.M. Sun, R. Zhao, Z.F. Liu, Y. Wang, B.D. Sun, Y.J. Yan and K.M. Qi. 2005. The periareolar approach management of postoperative complications of breast augmentation by injected polyacrylamide hydrogel. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 21(5): 332-334.
    • Xi, T.F., C.X. Fan, X.M. Feng, Z.Y. Wan, C.R. Wang and L.L. Chou. 2006. Cytotoxicity and altered c-myc gene expression by medical polyacrylamide hydrogel. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A. 78(2): 283-290.
    • Xiaoling, F., C. Yi, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Li, M. Yang, C. Peng and N. Guo. 2004. Analysis of the complications induced by polyacrylamide hydrogel injection. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 114(1): 261-262.
    • Xie, P.B. and A.P Shi. 2002. Application of polyacrylamide hydrogel in augmentation mammoplasty. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao 22(7): 648-649.
    • Yue, Y., Q. Qiao, C.H. Niu, Y.G. Wu, Z.F. Liu, X.Q. Geng and C.H. Yang. 2003. Applications of ultrasound in the treatment of the complications of breast augmentation with polyacrylamide hydrogel injection. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 19(5): 334-346.

References for Sidebar 2

Soluble Pam Effects on Soil (Erosion Control, Permeability, Chemistry)

  • Abu-Zreig, M. 2006. Control of rainfall-induced soil erosion with various types of polyacrylamide. Journal of Soils and Sediments 6(3): 137-144.
  • Ajwa, H.A. and T.J. Trout. 2006. Polyacrylamide and water quality effects on infiltration in sandy loam soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(2): 643-650.
  • Ashour, I.A., M.H. Ali, F.A. Hashem and A. Sayed. 2004. Effect of biodegradation of some soil conditioners on soil properties under saline water conditions. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 42(1): 401-413.
  • Bhardwaj, A.K, I. Shainberg, D. Goldstein, D.N. Warrington and G.J. Levy. 2007. Water retention and hydraulic conductivity of cross-linked polyacrylamides in sandy soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71(2): 406-412.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., F.L. Santos, N.S. Castanheira, O.C. Martins, J.L. Reis, J.K. Aase and R.E. Sojka. 2003. Using polyacrylamide with sprinkler irrigation to improve infiltration. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 283-289.
  • Blanco-Canqui, H., C.J. Gantzer, S.H. Anderson and A.L. Thompson. 2004. Soil berms as an alternative to steel plate borders for runoff plots. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68(5): 1689-1694.
  • Busscher, W.J., J.M. Novak and T.C. Caesar-TonThat. 2007. Organic matter and polyacrylamide amendment of Norfolk loamy sand. Soil and Tillage Research 93(1): 171-178.
  • Cochrane, B.H.W. J.M. Reichert, F.L.F. Eltz and L.D. Norton. 2005. Controlling soil erosion and runoff with polyacrylamide and phosphogypsum on subtropical soil. Transactions of the ASAE 48(1): 149-154.
  • Coskun, Z., N. Ozdemir and E. Ozturk. 2006. Effects of tobacco waste and polyacrylamide treatment on erodibility, nitrogen and phosphorus availability in the eroded soil. [Original title: Asnms toprakta tutun atg ve pam uygulamasnn erozyona kars duyarllk ile azot ve fosfor yaraysllgna etkileri.] Ondokuz Mays Universitesi, Ziraat Fakultesi Dergisi 21(2): 218-224.
  • Daniels, J.L. and H.I. Inyang. 2004. Contaminant barrier material textural response to interaction with aqueous polymers. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 16(3): 265-275.
  • Daniels, J.L., H.I. Inyang and I.K. Iskandar. 2003. Durability of Boston Blue Clay in waste containment applications. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 15(2): 144-152.
  • de Freitas-Azevedo, T.L., A. Bertonha, P.S.L. de Freitas, A.C.A. Goncalves, R. Rezende, R. Dallacort and L.C. Bertonha. 2006. Retention of sulphate solution by polierilamida hydrogel. [Original title: Retencao de solucoes de sulfatos por hidrogel de policrilamida.] Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 28(2): 287-290.
  • Delgado, J.A., C.A. Cox, R.E. Sojka and W.J. Busscher. 2003. Advances in the use of polyacrylamide (PAM) for soil and water management: Third joint symposium. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 269.
  • Deng, Y.J., J.B. Dixon and G.N. White. 2006. Adsorption of polyacrylamide on smectite, illite, and kaolinite. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(1): 297-304.
  • El-Hady, O.A. and S.A. Abo-Sedera. 2006. Conditioning effect of composts and acrylamide hydrogels on a sandy calcareous soil. II. Physico-bio-chemical properties of the soil. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 8(6): 876-884.
  • Entry, J.A. and R.E. Sojka. 2003. The efficacy of polyacrylamide to reduce nutrient movement from an irrigated field. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 46(1): 75-83.
  • Flanagan, D.C., L.D. Norton, J.R. Peterson and K. Chaudhari. 2003. Using polyacrylamide to control erosion on agricultural and disturbed soils in rainfed areas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58 (5): 301-311.
  • Goodson, C.C., G. Schwartz and C. Amrhein. 2006. Controlling tailwater sediment and phosphorus concentrations with polyacrylamide in the Imperial Valley, California. Journal of Environmental Quality 35(4): 1072-1077.
  • Green, V.S., D.E. Stott, J.G. Graveel and L.D. Norton. 2004. Stability analysis of soil aggregates treated with anionic polyacrylamides of different molecular formulations. Soil Science 169(8): 573-581.
  • Hayes, S.A., R.A. McLaughlin and D.L. Osmond. 2005. Polyacrylamide use for erosion and turbidity control on construction sites. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Ankeny 60(4): 193-199.
  • He, X.S., Z.W. Liao, P.Z. Huang, J.X. Duan, R.S. Ge, H.B. Li and J.H. Zhao. 2006. Research advances in slow/controlled-release water-storing fertilizers. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 22(5): 184-190.
  • Heller, H. and R. Keren. 2003. Anionic polyacrylamide polymer adsorption by pyrophyllite and montmorillonite. Clays and Clay Minerals 51(3): 334-339.
  • Holliman, P.J., J.A. Clark, J.C. Williamson and D.L. Jones. 2005. Model and field studies of the degradation of cross-linked polyacrylamide gels used during the revegetation of slate waste. Science of the Total Environment 336(1/3): 13-24.
  • Kornecki, T.S., B.C. Grigg, J.L. Fouss and L.M Southwick. 2006. Effectiveness of post-harvest sugarcane residue and polyacrylamide on reducing soil deposition in quarter-drains. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22(6): 857-865.
  • Kornecki, T.S., B.C. Grigg, J.L. Fouss and L.M Southwick. 2005. Polyacrylamide (PAM) application effectiveness in reducing soil erosion from sugarcane fields in Southern Louisiana. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21(2): 189-196.
  • Lei, T.W., P.J. Yuan, W.H. Zhan and I. Shainberg. 2004. Mini-flume experiment on effect of PAM and surge irrigation on water infiltration. Acta Pedologica Sinica 41(1): 140-143.
  • Leib, B.G., C.A. Redulla, R.G. Stevens, G.R. Matthews and D.A. Strausz. 2005. Erosion control practices integrated with polyacrylamide to reduce sediment loss in furrow irrigation. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21(4): 595-603.
  • Lentz, R.D. 2003. Inhibiting water infiltration with polyacrylamide and surfactants: Applications for irrigated agriculture. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 290-300.
  • Lentz, R.D. and D.L. Bjorneberg. 2003. Polyacrylamide and straw residue effects on irrigation furrow erosion and infiltration. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 312-319.
  • Liu, R.F., J.P. Zhang and A.Q. Wang. 2005. Water absorbency and its influence factor of PAM-atta superabsorbent composite. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 21(9): 47-50.
  • Liu, X., Z. Chen and F.G. Zeng. 2004. Effect of mineral property on the adsorption of polyacrylamide. Kuangwu Yanshi 24(1): 97-100.
  • Lu, J. and L. Wu. 2003. Polyacrylamide quantification methods in soil conservation studies. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 270-275.
  • Lu, J., X.F. Huang, Z.J. Tang and W.H. Zhan. 2004. Economic feasibility of PAM application in rain-fed agriculture in the loess regions of Northwest China. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 20(2): 97-100.
  • Lu, J.H. and L.S. Wu. 2003. Polyacrylamide distribution in columns of organic matter-removed soils following surface application. Journal of Environmental Quality 32(2): 674-680.
  • McFarlane, A., K. Bremmell and J. Addai-Mensah. 2006. Improved dewatering behavior of clay minerals dispersions via interfacial chemistry and particle interactions optimization. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 293(1): 116-127.
  • McLaughlin, R.A. and N. Bartholomew. 2007. Soil factors influencing suspended sediment flocculation by polyacrylamide. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71(2): 537-544.
  • McLaughlin, R.A. and T.T. Brown. 2006. Evaluation of erosion control products with and without added polyacrylamide. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42(3): 675-684.
  • Meral, R., B. Cemek, M. Apan and A. Horuz. 2004. Effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) application under different flow types on sediment and NO 3 -N surface transport at furrow irrigation. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7(4): 623-627.
  • Meral, R., B. Cemek, M. Apan and H. Merdun. 2006. Inverse effects of Polyacrylamide (PAM) usage in furrow irrigation on advance time and deep percolation. Journal of Environmental Biology 27(4): 691-694.
  • Moodley, M. and J.C. Hughes. 2006. The effects of a polyacrylamide-derived water treatment residue on the hydraulic conductivity, water retention and evaporation of four contrasting South African soils and implications for land disposal. Water Science and Technology 54(5): 227-234.
  • Nishimura, T., T. Yamamoto, S. Suzuki and M. Kato. 2005. Effect of gypsum and polyacrylamide application on erodibility of an acid Kunigami mahji soil. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 51(5): 641-644.
  • Oliver, D.P. and R.S. Kookana. 2006. Minimising off-site movement of contaminants in furrow irrigation using polyacrylamide (PAM). I. Pesticides. Australian Journal of Soil Research 44(6): 551-560.
  • Oliver, D.P. and R.S. Kookana. 2006. Minimising off-site movement of contaminants in furrow irrigation using polyacrylamide (PAM). II. Phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, and sediment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 44(6): 561-567.
  • Owczarzak, W., Z. Kaczmarek and J. Szukaa. 2006. The influence of stockosorb hydrogel on selected structure-forming properties of gray-brown podzolic soil and black earth. [Original title: Wpyw hydrozelu stockosorb na wybrane wasciwosci strukturotworcze gleby powej i czarnej ziemi.] Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering 51(3): 55-61.
  • Partington, M. 2004. The use of polyacrylamide for short-term erosion control. Advantage Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada FERIC 5(33): 2 pp.
  • Pefferkorn, E. 1999. Polyacrylamide at solid/liquid interfaces. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 216 (2): 197-220.
  • Peng, C., F. Li and X.Y. Pan. 2006. Effects of polyacrylamide application on hydraulic conductivity of sodic and nonsodic soils. Acta Pedologica Sinica 43(5): 835-842.
  • Petersen, A.L. 2006. The effectiveness of new polyacrylamide technologies in reducing soil and phosphorus loss from agricultural fields. Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsis (Madision, 87 pp.
  • Roa-Espinosa, A. and A. Mikel. 2004. Tri-PAM application: desert dust-busting in helicopter operations. Resource, Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World 11(3): 7-8.
  • Rolando, C.A., M. Hitchins and S. Olivier. 2006. Methods to improve late season planting of Pinus patula : results up to six months after planting. ICFR Bulletin Series (08/2006): 9 pp.
  • Ross, C.W., R.E. Sojka and J.A. Foerster. 2003. Scanning electron micrographs of polyacrylamide-treated soil in irrigation furrows. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 327-331.
  • Ryazanova, A.V., T.S. Krasotina, V.M. Zdrenik and A.V. Bel’brut. 1992. Colloidal-chemical and environmental problems of the use of some agents for soil structure formation. Pochvovedenie 1992(5): 108-111.
  • Sadeghian, N., M.R. Neishaboori, A.A. Jafarzadeh and M. Toorchi. 2006. A study of three amendment effects on surface soil physical properties. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 37(2): Pe341-Pe351, en17.
  • Santos, F.L., J.L. Reis, O.C. Martins, N.L. Castanheira and R.P. Serralheiro. 2003. Comparative assessment of infiltration, runoff and erosion of sprinkler irrigated soils. Biosystems Engineering 86(3): 355-364.
  • Sepaskhah, A.R. and A.R. Bazrafshan-Jahromi. 2006. Controlling runoff and erosion in sloping land with polyacrylamide under a rainfall simulator. Biosystems Engineering 93(4): 469-474.
  • Shahbazi, A., F. Sarmadian, H.G. Refahi and M. Gorji. 2005. The effect of polyacrylamide on erosion and runoff in saline-sodic soils. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 36(5): Pe1103-Pe1112, en6
  • Shekofteh, H., H. Rafahi and M. Gorji. 2005. A study of the effects of polyacrylamide on soil erosion and runoff. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 36(1): 177-186.
  • Sivapalan, S. 2005. Effect of gypsum and polyacrylamides on water turbidity and infiltration in a sodic soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43(6): 723-733.
  • Sivapalan, S. 2006. Benefits of treating a sandy soil with a crosslinked-type polyacrylamide. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 46(4): 579-584.
  • Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz. 1997. Reducing furrow irrigation erosion with polyacrylamide (PAM). Journal of Production Agriculture 10(1): 47-52.
  • Sojka, R.E. J.A. Entry, W.J. Orts, D.W. Morishita, C.W. Ross and D.J. Horne. 2005. Synthetic- and bio-polymer use for runoff water quality management in irrigated agriculture. Water Science and Technology 51(3/4): 107-115.
  • Sojka, R.E., D.L. Bjorneberg, J.A. Entry, R.D. Lentz and W.J. Orts. 2007. Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental land management. Advances in Agronomy 92: 75-162.
  • Taban, M. and S.A.R.M. Naeini. 2006. Effect of Aquasorb and organic compost amendments on soil water retention and evaporation with different evaporation potentials and soil textures. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 37(13/14): 2031-2055.
  • Tang, Z., T. Lei, J. Yu, I. Shainberg, A.I. Mamedov, M. Ben-Hur and G.J. Levy. 2006. Runoff and interrill erosion in sodic soils treated with dry PAM and phosphogypsum. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(2): 679-690.
  • Tang, Z.J., T.W. Lei, X.Y. Zhao, Z.G. Pan and N. Li. 2006. Impacts of polyacrylamide application on soil water status of loess and the growth of corn. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 22(4): 216-219.
  • Teo, J.A., C. Ray and S.A. El-Swaify. 2006. Screening of polymers on selected Hawaii soils for erosion reduction and particle settling. Hydrological Processes 20(1): 109-125.
  • Vacher, C.A., R.J. Loch and S.R. Raine. 2003. Effect of polyacrylamide additions on infiltration and erosion of disturbed lands. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41(8): 1509-1520.
  • Wang, D., Z.Q. Song and S.B. Shang. 2005. Study on performance and application of sandy-soil stabilizer from modified lignosulfonates. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, 25(S): 59-63.
  • Wang, X.B., D.X. Cai and R. Zhang. 2005. Comparison and evaluation of soil stability affected by macromolecule materials. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 38(8): 1608-1615.
  • Wang, Z.Y., Z.X. Liu, C.G. Cai, Y.C. Wei, Z.Y. Wang and D.Y. Fu. 2004. Syntheses of two super absorbent polymers and their effects on soil water retention. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 20(6): 64-67.
  • Wu, S.F., P. Wu, H. Feng and X.W. Zhu. 2005. Effects of macromolecule polymers on runoff and sediment on slope land. Acta Pedologica Sinica 42(1): 167-170.
  • Yu, J., T. Lei, I. Shainberg, A.I. Manedov and G.J. Levy. 2003. Infiltration and erosion in soils treated with dry PAM and gypsum. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67(2): 630-636.
  • Zhang, H.Y., B.T. Wang and L.L. Zou. 2003. Improvement on technological model of water-retaining in semi-arid loess plateau area. Journal of Beijing Forestry University 25(2): 14-17.

Polyacrylamide Usage in Decontminating Soils

  • Grcman, H. and D. Lestan. 2003. Use of hydrogels in EDTA induced Pb phytoextraction. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 12(9): 1044-1049.
  • Hernandez, C., L.J. Chacon, L. Anselmi, A. Baldonedo, J. Qi, P.C. Dowling and M.L. Pitts. 2003. ASP system design for an offshore application in La Salina Field, Lake Maracaibo. SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering 6(3): 147-156.
  • Kabashima, J.N., S.J. Lee, D.L. Haver, K.S. Goh, L.S. Wu and J. Gan. 2004. Pesticide runoff and mitigation at a commercial nursery site. Pesticide Decontamination and Detoxification 213-230.
  • Kos, B. and D. Lestan. 2003a. Induced phytoextraction/soil washing of lead using biodegradable chelate and permeable barriers. Environmental Science and Technology 37(3): 624-629.
  • Kos, B. and D. Lestan. 2003b. Influence of a biodegradable ([S,S]-EDDS) and nondegradable (EDTA) chelate and hydrogel modified soil water sorption capacity on Pb phytoextraction and leaching. Plant and Soil 253(2): 403-411.
  • Ren, G.M., D.Z. Sun and J.S. Chunk. 2006. Advanced treatment of oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding by UV/H 2 O 2 /O 3 and fine filtration. Journal of Environmental Sciences 18(1): 29-32.
  • Watwood, M.E. and J.L. Shoemake. 2000. Impact of polyacrylamide treatment on sorptive dynamics and degradation of 2,4-D and atrazine in agricultural soil. Journal of Soil Contamination 9(2): 133-147.

Polyacrylamide Usage in Water Treatment

  • Aguilar, M.I., J. Saez, M. Llorens, A. Soler and J.F. Ortuno. 2003. Microscopic observation of particle reduction in slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using ferric sulphate as coagulant and different coagulant aids. Water Research 37(9): 2233-2241.
  • Bolto, B. 2005. Reaction of chlorine with organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment: a review. Aqua – Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology 54(8): 531-544.
  • Chang, L.L., D.L. Raudenbush and S.K. Dentel. 2001. Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of a flocculant polymer. Water Science and Technology 44(2-3): 461-468.
  • de Rosemond, S.J.C. and K. Liber. 2004. Wastewater treatment polymers identified as the toxic component of a diamond mine effluent. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(9): 2234-2242.
  • Entry, J.A., I. Phillips, H. Stratton and R.E. Sojka. 2003. Polyacrylamide + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and polyacrylamide + CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater. Environmental Pollution 121(3): 453-462.
  • Entry, J.A., R.E. Sojka, M. Watwood and C. Ross. 2002. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants. Environmental Pollution 120(2): 191-200.
  • Flanagan, D.C. and N.H. Canady. 2006. Use of polyacrylamide in simulated land application of lagoon effluent: Part I. Runoff and sediment loss. Transactions of the ASABE 49(5): 1361-1369.
  • Flanagan, D.C. and N.H. Canady. 2006. Use of polyacrylamide in simulated land application of lagoon effluent: Part II. Nutrient loss. Transactions of the ASABE 49(5): 1371-1381.
  • Goodson, C.C., G. Schwartz and C. Amrhein. 2006. Controlling tailwater sediment and phosphorus concentrations with polyacrylamide in the Imperial Valley, California. Journal of Environmental Quality 35(4): 1072-1077.
  • Haveroen, M.E., M.D. MacKinnon and P.M. Fedorak. 2005. Polyacrylamide added as a nitrogen source stimulates methanogenesis in consortia from various wastewaters. Water Research Oxford 39(14): 3333-3341.
  • Hernandez, C., L.J. Chacon, L. Anselmi, A. Baldonedo, J. Qi, P.C. Dowling and M.L. Pitts. 2003. ASP system design for an offshore application in La Salina Field, Lake Maracaibo. SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering 6(3): 147-156.
  • Kofinas, P. and D.R. Kioussis. 2003. Reactive phosphorus removal from aquaculture and poultry productions systems using polymeric hydrogels. Environmental Science and Technology 37(2): 423-427.
  • Kroening, S.J., L.G. Greenfield and W.M. Williamson. 2004. Variation in and constraints upon the decomposition of woolscour sludge. Journal of Environmental Quality 33(3): 1081-1087.
  • Krumpelman, B.W., T.C. Daniel, F.G. Edwards, R.W. McNew and D.M. Miller. 2005. Optimum coagulant and flocculant concentrations for solids and phosphorus removal from pre-screened flushed dairy manure. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21(1): 127-135.
  • Ma, J., G. Li and N.J.D. Graham. 1994. Efficiency and mechanism of acrylamide removal by permanganate oxidation. Aqua – Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology 43(6): 287-295.
  • Mason, L.B., C. Amrhein, C.C. Goodson, M.R. Matsumoto and M.A. Anderson. 2005. Reducing sediment and phosphorus in tributary waters with alum and polyacrylamide. Journal of Environmental Quality 34(6): 1998-2004.
  • Moodley, M. and J.C. Hughes. 2006. The effects of a polyacrylamide-derived water treatment residue on the hydraulic conductivity, water retention and evaporation of four contrasting South African soils and implications for land disposal. Water Science and Technology 54(5): 227-234.
  • Peterson, J.R., D.C. Flanagan and K.M. Robinson. 2003. Channel evolution and erosion in PAM-treated and untreated experimental waterways. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 46(4): 1023-1031.
  • Ren, G.M., D.Z. Sun and J.S. Chunk. 2006. Advanced treatment of oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding by UV/H 2 O 2 /O 3 and fine filtration. Journal of Environmental Sciences 18(1): 29-32.
  • Rico, J.L., H. Garcia, C. Rico and I. Tejero. 2007. Characterisation of solid and liquid fractions of dairy manure with regard to their component distribution and methane production. Bioresource Technology 98(5): 971-979.
  • Rico, J.L., H. Garcia, C. Rico and Perez, N. 2006. Two-factor design for coagulant/flocculant doses effect for solid-liquid separation of dairy manure. Environmental Technology 27(2): 143-151.
  • Sojka, R.E. J.A. Entry, W.J. Orts, D.W. Morishita, C.W. Ross and D.J. Horne. 2005. Synthetic- and bio-polymer use for runoff water quality management in irrigated agriculture. Water Science and Technology 51(3/4): 107-115.
  • Soupir, M.L., S. Mostaghimi, A. Masters, K.A. Flahive, D.H. Vaughan, A. Mendez and P.W. McClellan. 2004. Effectiveness of polyacrylamide (PAM) in improving runoff water quality from construction sites. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40(1): 53-66.
  • Spackman, R., J.A. Entry, R.E. Sojka and J.W. Ellsworth. 2003. Polyacrylamide for coliform bacteria removal from agricultural wastewater. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58(5): 276-283.
  • Szogi, A.A., M.B. Vanotti and P.G. Hunt. 2006. Dewatering of phosphorus extracted from liquid swine waste. Bioresource Technology 97(1): 183-190.
  • Timby, G.G., T.C. Daniel, R.W. McNew and P.A. Moore, Jr. 2004. Polymer type and aluminum chloride affect screened solids and phosphorus removal from liquid dairy manure. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 20(1): 57-64.
  • Wong, S.S., T.T. Teng, A.L. Ahmad, a. Zuhairi and G. Najafpour. 2006. Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater by polyacrylamide (PAM) in polymer induced flocculation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 135(1/3): 378-388.