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Linda Chalker-Scott Literature on Compost Tea and Disease Suppression

Literature on Compost Tea and Disease Suppression

Compiled by Dr. Linda Chalker-Scott, Ph.D.

Associate Professor and Extension Urban Horticulturist, WSU Puyallup Research and Extension Center

Refereed, Scientific Publications

Compost Effects on Disease Suppression

  • Arora, T, Y. Eklind, B. Ramert and S. Alstrom. 2005. Microbial analysis and test of plant pathogen antagonism of municipal and farm composts. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 22 (4): 349-367.
  • Chen, W., H.A.J. Hoitink, A.F. Schmitthenner, and O.H. Tuovinen. 1988. The role of microbial activity in suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum . Phytopathology 78 (3): 314-322.
  • Crohn, D.M. and M.L. Bishop. 1999. Proximate carbon analysis for compost production and mulch use. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 42 (3): 791-797.
  • Erhart, E., K. Burian, W. Hartl and K. Stich. 1999. Suppression of Pythium ultimum by biowaste composts in relation to compost microbial biomass, activity and content of phenolic compounds. Journal of Phytopathology 147 (5): 299-305.
  • Erhart, E. and K. Burian. 1997. Evaluating quality and suppressiveness of Austrian biowaste composts. Compost Science and Utilization 5 (3): 15-24.
  • Fayolle, L., R. Noble, E. Coventry , S. Aime and C. Alabouvette. 2006. Eradication of Plasmodiophora brassicae during composting of wastes. Plant Pathology 55(4): 553-558.
  • Hoitink, H.A.J., A.G. Stone and D.Y. Han. 1997. Suppression of plant diseases by composts. HortScience 32 (2): 184-187.
  • Hoitink, H.A.J, D.M. VanDoren Jr. and A.F. Schmitthenner. 1977. Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in a composted hardwood bark potting medium. Phytopathology . 67 (4): 561-565.
  • Kannangara, T., R.S. Utkhede, J.W. Paul and A.K. Punja. 2000. Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 46 (11): 1021-1028.
  • Kavroulakis, N., C. Ehaliotis, S. Ntougias, G.I. Zervakis and K.K. Papadopoulou. 2005.
  • Local and systemic resistance against fungal pathogens of tomato plants elicited by a compost derived from agricultural residues. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 66: 163-174.
  • Lumsden, R.D., P.D. Millner and J.A. Lewis. 1986. Suppression of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor with composted sewage sludge. Plant Disease 70 (3): 197-201.
  • Mills, D.J., C.B. Coffman, J.R. Teasdale, K.L. Everts and J.D. Anderson. 2002. Factors associated with foliage disease of staked fresh market tomatoes grown under different bed strategies. Plant Disease 86 (4): 356-361.
  • Mochizuki, T. and K. Yamakawa. 1988. Method for screening the resistance to Fusarium crown and root rot Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. radicis lycopersici of tomato in the early seeding stage. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Vegetables Ornamental Plants and Tea Series A . (2): 217-238.
  • Ryckeboer, J. and J. Coosemans. 1996. The suppression of clubroot ( Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) on cauliflower after the addition of biowaste composts to the potting soil. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent . 61 (1): 31-41.
  • Scheuerell, S.J., D.M. Sullivan and W.F. Mahaffee. 2005. Suppression of seedling damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum , P. irregulare , and Rhizoctonia solani in container media amended with a diverse range of Pacific Northwest compost sources. Phytopathology 95: 306-315.
  • Spencer, S. and D.M. Benson. 1982. Pine bark hardwood bark compost and peat amendment effects on development of Phytophthora spp. and Lupine lupinus angustifolius root rot. P hytopathology 72(3): 346-351.
  • Spring, D.E., M.A. Ellis, R.A. Spotts, H.A.J. Hoitink and A.F. Schmitthenner. 1980. Suppression of the apple collar rot pathogen in composted hardwood bark. Phytopathology 70(12): 1209-1211.
  • Szczech, M.M. 1999. Suppressiveness of vermicompost against fusarium wilt of tomato. Journal of Phytopathology 147(3): 155-161.
  • Tilston, E.L., D. Pitt and A.C. Groenhof. 2002. Composted recycled organic matter suppresses soil-borne diseases of field crops. New Phytologist 154(3): 731-740.
  • Traenkner, A. 1992. Use of agricultural and municipal organic wastes to develop suppressiveness to plant pathogens, pp. 35-42. In: E.C. Tjamos, G.C. Papavizas and R.J. Cook (eds.), Biological Control of Plant Diseases: Progress and Challenges for the Future. NATO ASI Series No. 230, Plenum Press, New York, NY.
  • Ueda, T., H. Kai and E. Taniguchi. 1990. Growth inhibition of soil-borne pathogenic fungi by typical sterols. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22(7): 987-992.
  • Widmer, T.L., J.H. Graham and D.J. Mitchell. 1998. Composted municipal waste reduces infection of citrus seedlings by Phytophthora nicotianae . Plant Disease 82(6): 683-688.
  • Zinati, G.M. 2005. Compost in the 20th century: A tool to control plant diseases in nursery and vegetable crops. HortTechnology 15(1): 61-66.

Compost Tea Literature Reviews

  • Litterick, A.M., L. Harrier, P. Wallace, C.A. Watson and M. Wood. 2004. The role of uncomposted materials, composts, manures, and compost extracts in reducing pest and disease incidence and severity in sustainable temperate agricultural and horticultural crop production – A review. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23(6): 453-479.
  • Litterick, A.M., C.A. Watson, P. Wallace and M. Wood. 2004. Compost teas – a simple disease control solution for organic crops?, pp. 188-191. In: A. Hopkins (ed.) Organic farming: science and practice for profitable livestock and cropping . Newport, Shropshire, UK
  • Scheuerell, S. and W. Mahaffee. 2002. Compost tea: Principles and prospects for plant disease control. Compost Science and Utilization 10(4): 313-338.

Anaerobic Compost Tea (NCT) & Disease Control

  • Al-Dahmani, J.H., P.A. Abbasi, S.A. Miller and H.A.J. Hoitink. 2003. Suppression of bacterial spot of tomato with foliar sprays of compost extracts under greenhouse and field conditions. Plant Disease 87(8): 913-919.
  • Cronin, M.J., D.S. Yohalem, R.F. Harris and J.H. Andrews. 1996. Putative mechanism and dynamics of inhibition of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis by compost extracts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28(9): 1241-1249.
  • Daami-Remadi, M., H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine, F. Ayed, K. Hibar, I.E.A. Znaidi and M. El-Mahjoub. 2006. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of individually compost fungi for potato Fusarium dry rot biocontrol. Journal of Biological Sciences 6(3): 572-580.
  • El-Masry, M.H., A.I. Khalil, M.S. Hassouna and H.A.H. Ibrahim. 2002. In situ and in vitro suppressive effect of agricultural composts and their water extracts on some phytopathogenic fungi. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 18(6): 551-558.
  • Elad, Y. and D. Shtienberg. 1994. Effect of compost water extracts on grey mould ( Botrytis cinerea ). Crop Protection 13(2): 109-114.
  • Fokkema, N..J. 1993. Opportunities and problems of control of foliar pathogens with microorganisms. Pesticide Science 37(4): 411-416.
  • Grebus, M.E., M.E. Watson and H.A.J. Hoitink. 1994. Biological, chemical and physical properties of composted yard trimmings as indicators of maturity and plant disease suppression. Compost Science and Utilization 2(1): 57-71.
  • Hardy, G.E.S.J. and K. Sivasithamparam. 1991. Effects of sterile and non-sterile leachates extracted from composted eucalyptus bark and pine-bark container media on Phytophthora spp. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 23(1): 25-30.
  • Kai, H., T. Ueda, and M. Sakjaguchi. 1990. Antimicrobial activity of bark compost extracts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22(7): 983-986.
  • Kokalis, B.N. and K.R. Rodriguez. 1994. Effects of pine bark extracts and pine bark powder on fungal pathogens, soil enzyme activity, and microbial populations. Biological Control 4(3): 269-276.
  • Kuc, J. and N.E. Strobel. 1992. Induced resistance using pathogens and nonpathogens, pp. 295-­301. In: E.S. Tjamos, G.C. Papavizas, and R.J. Cook (ed.) Biological Control of Plant Diseases: Progress and Challenges for the Future . NATO ASI Series No. 230. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
  • Kumar, P.M.P., S.M.H. Qadri, M.D. Maji, S.K. Gangwar and B. Saratchandra. 2000. Biological control of Phyllactinia corylea (Pers.) Karst, using composted plant extracts. Indian Journal of Sericulture 39(1): 81-83.
  • Mapleston, P.A., J.M. Whipps and J.M. Lynch. 1991. Effect of peat-bran inoculum of Trichoderma spp. on biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in lettuce. Plant and Soil 136 (2): 257-264.
  • McQuilken, M.P., J.M. Whipps and J.M. Lynch. 1994. Effects of water extracts of a composted manure-straw mixture on the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea . World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10(1): 20-26.
  • Mello, A.F.S., S. deA. Lourenco and L. Amorim. 2005. Alternative products in the in vitro inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum . Scientia Agricola 62(2): 179-183.
  • Militante, E.P. and B. Krishnapillay. 2002. Biological control of forest tree diseases. Basic Principles of Biotechnology and Their Application in Forestry 117-125.
  • Nagai, H., M Matsusaki and M. Ogiso. 2002. Disease suppressing of Fusarium crown and root rots of tomato by antagonistic bacteria AP-1. Research Bulletin of the Aichi ken Agricultural Research Center (34): 105-110.
  • Ozer, N. and N.D. Koycu. 2006. The ability of plant compost leachates to control black mold ( Aspergillus niger ) and to induce the accumulation of antifungal compounds in onion following seed treatment. BioControl 51(2): 229-243.
  • Redl, H. and K. Bauer. 1990. Investigation of alternative agents with respect to their effectiveness against Plasmopara viticola and their influence on yields under Australian viticultural conditions. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg 40(3): 134-138.
  • Sackenheim, R, H.C. Weltzien and W.K. Kast. 1994. Effects of microflora composition in the phyllosphere on biological regulation of grapevine fungal diseases. Vitis 33(4): 235-240.
  • Samerski, C. and H.C. Weltzien. 1988. Investigations on the mode of action of compost extracts in the host-parasite-system sugar beet—powdery mildew. Journal of Plant Disease Protection 95(2): 176-181.
  • Sharma, V.P. and C.L. Jandaik. 1994. Effect of some plant materials in controlling different moulds in Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 24(3):183-185.
  • Tautorus, T.E. and P.M. Townsley. 1983. Biological control of olive green mold in Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 45(2): 511-515.
  • Trankner, A. 1992. Use of agricultural and municipal organic wastes to develop suppressiveness to plant pathogens, pp. 35­42. In: E.C. Tjamos, G.C. Papavizas, and R.J. Cook (ed.) Biological Control of Plant Diseases: Progress and Challenges for the Future . NATO ASI Series No. 230. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
  • van Os, G.J. and J.H. van Ginkel. 2001. Suppression of Pythium root rot in bulbous Iris in relation to biomass and activity of the soil microflora. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(11): 1447-1454.
  • Wang, P.C. and J.W. Huang. 2000. Characteristics for inhibition of cucumber damping-off by spent forest mushroom compost. Plant Pathology Bulletin 9(4): 137-144.
  • Welke, S.E. 2005. The effect of compost extract on the yield of strawberries and the severity of Botrytis cinerea . Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 25(1): 57-68.
  • Weltzien, H.C. and N. Ketterer. 1986. Control of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola (de Bary) Berlese et de Toni, on grapevine leaves through water extracts from composted organic wastes. Journal of Phytopathology . 116:186-188.
  • Weltzien, H.C. 1990. The use of composted materials for leaf disease suppression in field crops, pp. 115­-120. In: Crop Protection in Organic and Low-Input Agriculture . British Crop Protection Council Monographs No. 45, l.
  • Weltzien, H.C. 1991. Biocontrol of foliar fungal diseases with compost extracts. p. 430­-450. In: John H. Andrews and Susan S. Hirano (ed.) Microbial Ecology of Leaves. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
  • Yohalem, D.S., E.V. Nordheim and J.H. Andrews. 1996. The effect of water extracts of spent mushroom compost on apple scab in the field. Phytopathology 86(9): 914-922.
  • Yohalem, D.S., R. Voland, E.V. Nordheim, R.F. Harris and J.H. Andrews. 1996. Sample size requirements to evaluate spore germination inhibition by compost extracts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28(4/5): 519-525.
  • Yohalem, D.S., R.F. Harris and J.H. Andrews. 1994. Aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrate for foliar disease control. Compost Science and Utilization 2(4): 67-74.
  • Zhang, W., D.Y. Han, W.A. Dick, K.R. Davis and H.A.J. Hoitink. 1998. Compost and compost water extract-induced systemic acquired resistance in cucumber and Arabidopsis . Phytopathology 88(5): 450-455.

Aerobic Compost Tea (ACT) & Disease Control

  • Aerts, R., B. De Schutter and L. Rombouts. 2002. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent . 2002; 67(2): 343-351.
  • Al-Mughrabi, K.I. 2006. Antibiosis ability of aerobic compost tea against foliar and tuber potato diseases. Biotechnology 5(1): 69-74.
  • Cronin, M.J., D.S. Yohalem, R.F. Harris and J.H. Andrews. 1996. Putative mechanism and dynamics of inhibition of the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis by compost extracts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28(9):1241-1249.
  • Diánez, F., I. Trillas, M. Avilés, J.C. Tello, M. Santos, A. Boix and M. de Cara. 2006.
  • Grape marc compost tea suppressiveness to plant pathogenic fungi: Role of siderophores.
  • Compost Science and Utilization 14(1): 48-53.
  • Scheuerell, S.J. and W.F. Mahaffee. 2004. Compost tea as a container medium drench for suppressing seedling damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum . Phytopathology 94(11): 1156-1163.
  • Sturz, A.V., D.H. Lynch, R.C. Martin and A.M. Driscoll. 2006. Influence of compost tea, powdered kelp, and Manzate Reg. 75 on bacterial-community composition, and antibiosis against Phytophthora infestans in the potato phylloplane. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology . 2006; 28(1): 52-62.
  • Utkhede, R. and C. Koch. 2004. Biological treatments to control bacterial canker of greenhouse tomatoes. Biocontrol 49(3): 305-313.

Compost Tea, Leachate & Extract Problems

  • Bugbee, G.J. 1999. Effects of hardwood sawdust in potting media containing biosolids compost on plant growth, fertilizer needs, and nitrogen leaching. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 30(5/6): 689-698.
  • Cabrera, G.L., D.M.G. Rodriguez and A.B. Maruri . 1999. Genotoxicity of the extracts from the compost of the organic and the total municipal garbage using three plant bioassays. Mutation Research 426(2): 201-206.
  • Carrion, C., M. Abad, A. Maquieira, R. Puchades, F. Fornes and V. Noguera. 2005. Leaching of composts from agricultural wastes to prepare nursery potting media. Acta Horticulturae 697: 117-124.
  • Duffy, B., C. Sarreal, S. Ravva and L. Stanker. 2004. Effect of molasses on regrowth of E. coli O157 : H7 and Salmonella in compost teas. Compost Science and Utilization 12(1): 93-96.
  • Gils, J., C. Chong and G. Lumis. 2005. Response of container-grown ninebark to crude and nutrient-enriched recirculating compost leachates. Hortscience 40(5): 1507-1512.
  • Guo, M., J. Chorover, R. Rosario and R.H. Fox. 2001. Leachate chemistry of field-weathered spent mushroom substrate. Journal of Environmental Quality 30(5): 1699-1709.
  • Hui, C.H., M.K. So, C.M. Lee and G.Y.S. Chan. 2003. Nitrous oxide flux from landfill leachate-sawdust nitrogenous compost. Chemosphere 52(9): 1547-1551.
  • Madrid, F, P. Burgos and E. Diaz-Barrientos. 2000. Mobilisation of metals from homogeneous soil columns by various aqueous solutions. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 9 (5-6): 352-359.
  • Kuo, S., R.L. Hummel, E.J. Jellum and D. Privett. 1997. Fishwaste compost effects on rhododendron growth and nitrogen leaching and transformation. Journal of Environmental Quality 26(3): 733-739.
  • Kannangara, T., T. Forge and B. Dang. 2006. Effects of aeration, molasses, kelp, compost type, and carrot juice on the growth of Escherichia coli in compost teas. Compost Science and Utilization 14(1): 40-47.
  • Lafrance, C; Lessard, P; Buelna, G. 1996. Evaluation of peat and compost filtration for the treatment of the effluent of yard waste composting facilities. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 23(5): 1041-1050.
  • Lin, H.T., M.C. Wang and G.C. Li. 2004. Complexation of arsenate with humic substance in water extract of compost. Chemosphere 56(11): 1105-1112.
  • Li, Y.C., P.J. Stoffella, A.K. Alva, D.V. Calvert and D.A. Graetz. 1997. Leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate from compost amended soil columns. Compost Science and Utilization 5(2): 63-67.
  • Liu, C. and K.V. Lo. 2001. Ammonia removal from compost leachate using zeolite. II. A study using continuous flow packed columns. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B 36(5): 667-675.
  • Marchiol, L; Mondini, C; Leita, L; Zerbi, G. 1999. Effects of municipal waste leachate on seed germination in soil-compost mixtures. Restoration Ecology 7(2): 155-161.
  • Pare, M., T.C. Paulitz and K.A. Stewart. 2000. Composting of crucifer wastes using geotextile covers. Compost Science and Utilization 8(1): 36-45.
  • Sharpley, A. and B. Moyer. 2000. Phosphorus forms in manure and compost and their release during simulated rainfall. Journal of Environmental Quality 29(5): 1462-1469.
  • Woodbury, P.B. 1992. Trace-elements in municipal solid-waste composts – a review of potential detrimental effects on plants, soil biota, and water-quality. Biomass and Bioenergy 3(3-4): 239-259.
  • Zapata, N., F. Guerrero and A. Polo. 2005. Evaluacion de corteza de pino y residuos urbanos como componentes de sustratos de cultivo. [Evaluation of pine bark and urban wastes as components of plant growth media.] Agricultura Tecnica 65(4): 378-387.

Other Compost Tea Work

  • Anon. 2005. Needed: Compost tea research findings. Compost Science and Utilization 13(2): 87.
  • Christensen, T.H. 1985. Cadmium soil sorption at low concentrations. IV. Effect of waste leachates on distribution coefficients. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 26(3): 265-274.
  • Drenovsky, R.E., R.A. Duncan and K.M. Scow. 2005. Soil sterilization and organic carbon, but not microbial inoculants, change microbial communities in replanted peach orchards.
    California Agriculture 59(3): 176-181.
  • Gils, J., C. Chong and G. Lumis. 2005. Response of container-grown ninebark to crude and nutrient-enriched recirculating compost leachates. Hortscience 40(5): 1507-1512.
  • Hall, S.G., D.A. Schellinger and W.A. Carney. 2006. Enhancing sugarcane field residue biodegradation by grinding and use of compost tea. Compost Science and Utilization 14(1): 32-39.
  • Janzen, R.A., F.D. Cook and W.B. McGill. 1995. Compost extract added to microcosms may simulate community-level controls on soil microorganisms involved in element cycling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27(2): 181-188.
  • Jarecki, M.K., C. Chong and R.P. Voroney. 2005. Evaluation of compost leachates for plant growth in hydroponic culture. Journal of Plant Nutrition 28(4): 651-667.
  • Keeling, A.A., K.R. McCallum and C.P. Beckwith. 2003. Mature green waste compost enhances growth and nitrogen uptake in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) through the action of water-extractable factors. Bioresource Technology 90(2): 127-132.
  • Marambe, B., T. Ando and K., Kouno. 1991. Effect of inorganic cations in animal-waste composts on water and cation absorption of germinating sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seeds. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 37(3): 487-496.
  • Marambe, B. and T. Ando. 1992. Phenolic acids as potential seed germination inhibitors in animal-waste composts. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 38(4): 727-733.
  • Marambe, B. and T. Ando. 1993. Changes in ATP content of sorghum seeds imbibed in aqueous extracts of germination inhibitory animal-waste composts. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 170(1): 12-17.
  • Nagaoka, T., K.I. Umezu, K. Kouno, S. Yoshida, Y. Ishiguro and T. Ando. 1996. Selective inhibitors of germination of legume seeds in activated sludge compost . Plant Growth Regulation 20(3): 295-302.
  • Palmroth, M.R.T., J. Pichtel and J.A. Puhakka. 2002. Phytoremediation of subarctic soil contaminated with diesel fuel. Bioresource Technology 84(3): 221-228.
  • Pandey, R. and R.A. Sikora. 2000. Einfluss wassriger Extrakte organischer Substanzen auf die Empfindlichkeit von Heterodera schachtii Schmidt und Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood Eier gegenuber Verticillium chlamydosporium Goddard infektion.
  • [Influence of aqueous extracts of organic matter on the sensitivity of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt and Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood eggs to Verticillium chlamydosporium Goddard infection]. Zeitschrift-fuer-Pflanzenkrankheiten-und-Pflanzenschutz 107(5): 494-497.

Non-refereed Material

Popular Magazines

  • Anon. 1997. Applying compost tea to prevent potato blight. Biocycle 38 (5): 53-53.
  • Anon. 2001. Compost tea protects greens on Presidio Golf Course. Biocycle 42(11): 6.
  • Anon. 2002. San Francisco, California – Effects of compost tea on golf course greens. Biocycle 43(7): 18.
  • Anon. 2003. Compost tea as an organic input. Biocycle 44(2): 14.
  • Anon. 2003. Templeton, California – A microbial perspective on compost tea applications. Biocycle 44 (2): 18.
  • Anon. 2003. Using compost tea in irrigation water for farm crops. Biocycle 44(2): 27.
  • Bess, V.H. 2000. Understanding compost tea. Biocycle 41(10): 71-72.
  • Brinton, W.F. 1995. The control of plant pathogenic fungi by use of compost teas. Biodynamics . January-February p. 12-­15.
  • Brown, M. 2005. Compost tea in Central Park: an update. BioCycle 46(7): 59-60.
  • Carpenter-Boggs, L. 2005. Diving into compost tea. BioCycle 46(7): 61-62.
  • Chalker-Scott, L. 2005. The myth of compost tea, episode III. On-line at http://lcs.puyallup.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/403/2015/03/compost-tea-3.pdf
  • Chalker-Scott, L. 2003. The myth of compost tea revisited. Washington State Nursery and Landscape Association B & B 55 (8): 9-11. Also available at http://lcs.puyallup.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/403/2015/03/compost-tea-2.pdf
  • Chalker-Scott, L. 2001. The myth of compost tea. Washington State Nursery and Landscape Association B & B 53 (4): 4. Also available at http://lcs.puyallup.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/403/2015/03/compost-tea.pdf
  • Goldstein, J. 2005. Needed: Compost tea research findings. Compost Science and Utilization, 13(2): 87.
  • Grace, K. 2005. California vineyard finds large role for compost. BioCycle 46(6): 25-27
    Grobe, K. 2003. California landscape contractor calls it compost tea time. Biocycle 44(2): 26-27.
  • Ingham, E. 1998. Anaerobic bacteria and compost tea. Biocycle 39 (6): 86-86.
  • Ingham, E. 1999. Making a high quality compost tea – Part II. Biocycle 40 (4): 94.
  • Ingham, E. 1999. What is compost tea? Part I. Biocycle 40 (3): 74-75.
  • Ingham, E. 2005. Compost tea: promises and practicalities. IPM Practitioner 27(9/10): 1-5.
  • Kmitta, J. 2002. Something’s brewing: The benefits of compost tea. Arbor Age 22 (4): 36-37. Cathedral City, Calif.: Adams Business Media.
  • Line, M. and Y. Ramona. 2003. The making of compost teas – The next generation? Biocycle 44(12): 55-56.
  • Mache, Rainer. 1990. Protecting crops with a compost soup. The Furrow Nov-Dec. p. 18. John Deere Publications.
  • Peavy, William S. 1993. Liquid eco-fertilizer: Using ‘extract of compost’ on garden crops. Ohio Ecological Food & Farm Association News . Winter p. 10.
  • Rovins, C. 2005. Landfill gives birth to ecoindustrial complex. BioCycle 46(3): 20-23.
    Ryan, M, D. Wilson, P. Hepperly, J. Travis, N. Halbrendt and A. Wise. 2005. Compost tea potential is still brewing. BioCycle 46(6): 30-32.
    Rynk, R. 2003. Purifying water for compost tea. Biocycle 44(10): 14.
  • Quarles, W. 2001. Compost tea for organic farming and gardening. IPM Practioner 23(9): 1-8.
  • Scheuerell, S. 2003. Understanding how compost tea can control disease. Biocycle 44(2): 20-25.
  • Sideman, Eric. 1996. Enhancing natural disease control with water compost extracts. Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener . Mar-May p. 30, ­31, 41.
  • Touart, A.P. 2000. Time for (compost) tea in the northwest. Biocycle 41(10): 74-77.
  • Urban, J. 2004. Organic maintenance: Mainstream at last? Compost tea and other alternatives to gardening with chemicals. Landscape Architecture 94(3): 38+.
  • Weltzien, H. 1990. Plant protection using compost extracts. International Ag. Sieve 3(4): 1­2.

Meetings and Proceedings

  • Al-Dahmani, J.H., P.A. Abbasi, S.A. Miller and H.A.J. Hoitink. 1999. Efficacy of compost water extracts for control of bacterial spot of tomato. Phytopathology 89(6 Supplement ): S2.
  • Al-Dahmani, J.H., S.A. Miller and H.A.J. Hoitink. 1998. Control of bacterial spot of tomato with foliar sprays of compost water extracts. Phytopathology 88(9 Supplement.): S3.
  • Andrews, J.H., R.N. Spear, X. Zhang, E.V. Nordheim and R.F. Harris. 1992. Compost extracts and the biological control of apple scab. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 14(3): 240.
  • Budde, E.K., and H.C. Weltzien. 1988. Phytosanitary effects of compost extracts and substrates on the host-pathogen system barley powdery mildew Erysiphe graminis F. sp. hordei marchal . Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Universiteit Gent 53(2 Part A): 363-372.
  • Budde, K. and H.C. Weltzien. 1988. Studies on the action of compost extracts and compost substrates in the grain-genuine mildew Erysiphe graminis . Communications of the Federal Biological Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Berlin-Dahlem 245: 366.
  • Diver, S. 2004. Compost teas: A tool for rhizosphere + phyllosphere agriculture. Phytopathology 94(6 Supplement):13.
  • Duffy, B., S. Ravva and L. Stanker 2002. Human pathogen safety issues with compost extracts. Phytopathology 92(6 Supplement ): S21.
  • Grewal, P.S. 1988. Stimulation of fungal control of mycophagous nematodes and weed moulds in mushroom compost. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests and Diseases 3: 1199-1204.
  • Hummerick, M.P., J.L. Adams, J.E. Judkins, N.C. Yorio and J.L. Garland. 2001. The microbiological effect of using compost leachate in hydroponic plant systems. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 101: 667.
  • Ketterer, N., B. Fischer and H.C. Weltzien. 1992. Biological control of Botrytis cinerea on grapevine by compost extracts and their microorganisms in pure culture, pp. 179-186. In: K. Verhoeff, N.E. Malathrakis and B. Williamson, (eds.), Recent Advances in Botrytis Research .
  • Ketterer, N. and L. Schwager. 1992. The effect of compost extracts on disease attack and phyllosphere population in bush bean and tomato leaves. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Universiteit Gent 5 7 (2-3 Part A-B) 411-421.
  • Ketterer, N. and H.C. Weltzien. 1988. The effect of compost and microorganism extracts on potato infection by Phytophthora infestans . Communications of the Federal Biological Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Berlin-Dahlem 245: 346.
  • Ketterer, N. and H.C. Weltzien. 1987. Studies on the effect of compost extracts on the infection of grapevine leaves through Pseudopeziza tracheiphila in outdoor trials. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Universiteit Gent 5 2 (3 Part A): 965-970.
  • Kotcon, J.B. and W.K. Murray. 2003. Efficacy of compost and compost tea for suppression of early blight in organically grown tomato. Phytopathology 93 (6 Supplement ): S47.
  • Larkin, R.P. 2004. Influence of biocontrol agents and other biological amendments on soil microbial communities. Phytopathology 94(6 Supplement): S56.
  • Lyons, M.T., A.D. Peacock, D.C. White and C.E. Sams. 2002. Composted amendments alter soil microbial communities and suppress southern blight. Phytopathology 92 (6 Supplement ): S49.
  • McGrath, M.T. 2003. Organic crop production in Australia. Phytopathology 93 (6 Supplement ): S134.
  • Sackenheim, R., H.C. Weltzien, W.K. Kast and N. Ketterer. 1990. Studies on the action of some compost extracts of fungal grape pathogens. Communications of the Federal Biological Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Berlin-Dahlem 266: 219.
  • Samerski, C. and H.C. Weltzien. 1988. Studies on the activity and action mechanisms of compost extracts in the pathosystem cucumber-cucumber powerry mildew Sphaerotheca fuliginea . Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Universiteit Gent 53 (2 Part A): 373-378.
  • Schilder, A.M.C, J.M Gillett and R.W. Sysak. 2003. Disease control improves winter survival of summer red raspberry plants. American Phytopathological Society North Central

Division Abstracts

  • Traenkner, A. and R. Liesenfeld. 1990. Suppression of Pythium ultimum , and embryo disease of the pea, Pisum sativum , by treating seeds with compost extract. Communications of the Federal Biological Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Berlin-Dahlem 266: 64.
  • Weltzien, H.C. 1989. Some effects of composted organic materials on plant health. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 27: 439-­446.
  • Weltzien, H.C. 1988. The effects of compost extracts on plant health, pp. 551-­552. In: P. Allen and D.Van Dusen (eds.) Global Perspectives on Agroecology and Sustainable Agricultural Systems.
  • Weltzien, H.C., K. Budde, N. Ketterer, C. Samerski and A. Stindt. 1990. Improved plant health through application of composted organic material and compost extracts. p. 377­-379. In: A. Djigma et al. (ed). Agricultural Alternatives and Nutritional Self-Sufficiency .

Other Nonreferred Materials

  • Diver, S. 1998. Compost teas for plant disease control. Pest management technical notes (Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (Organization) 5 pp.
  • Ingham, E.R. 2003. The compost tea brewing manual, 4th ed. Soil Foodweb, Inc., Corvallis, OR, 88 pp.
  • Ketterer, N. 1990. Studies on the effect of a compost extraction on the leaf infections of potatoes and tomatoes by Phytophthora infestans as well as on the infection of grape vines by Plasmopara viticola , Pseudopeziza tracheiphila and Uncinula necator . PhD Thesis, Bonn, Germany.
  • Van Bol, V., C. Decamps, H. Maraite and A. Peeters. 1993. Control of Phytophthora infestans in a potato crop: Testing of methods usable in organic farming. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent . 58(3B): 1315-1320.

Patents

  • Alms, M. J. Hilty and G. Van Hoesen. 2003. Compost tea system. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1276(3).
  • Hronek, D.R. 2004. Apparatus for producing compost tea. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1281(4).
  • Huhn, T.C. 2004. Method of producing compost tea and apparatus therefore. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1284(4).
  • Roberts, G.D. and V.J. Roberts. 2003. Aerobic reduction reactor. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1269(5).