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Linda Chalker-Scott Literature on Bacillus thuringiensis

Literature on Bacillus thuringiensis

Compiled by Dr. Linda Chalker-Scott, Ph.D.

Associate Professor and Extension Urban Horticulturist, WSU Puyallup Research and Extension Center

Useful Websites

General Scientific References

  • Anonymous. 1999. Microbial pest control agent: Bacillus thuringiensis. Environmental Health Criteria Monograph 217.
  • Battu, G.S., G.S. Dhaliwal and R. Arora. 1994. Microbial pesticides in integrated pest management: Problems and perspectives. Indian Journal of Ecology 21(2): 122-133.
  • Hickle, L.A. and W.L. Fitch (eds.). 1990. Analytical Chemistry of Bacillus thuringiensis . ACS Symposium Series (432): ix + 148 pp.
  • Khetan, S.K. 2001. Microbial Pest Control. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 300 pp.
  • Krieg, A. 1986. Bacillus thuringiensis , a microbial insecticide. Principles and application. [ Bacillus thuringiensis, ein mikrobielles Insektizid. Grundlagen und Anwendung.] Acta Phytomedica 10:1-191.
  • Metz, M. 2003. Bacillus thuringiensis : A Cornerstone of Modern Agriculture. Food Products Press, Binghamton, USA .
  • van der Laan, P.A. (ed.). 1967. Insect Pathology and Microbial Control. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Scientitifc Publications (Externally Reviewed)

  • Albert, R. 2001. The use of the pheromone mating disruption method against fruit moths in private allotments. Bulletin OILB/SROP 24(2): 31-35.
  • Angeli, G., D. Forti and C. Cappelletti. 1998. Side effects on Orius of some pesticides used on garden flowers. [Selettivita verso Orius di dieci fitofarmaci.] Colture Protette 27(1): 73-77.
  • Anonymous. 1985. Pesticides for individual orchards and kitchen gardens. Zashchita Rastenii 4: 52-53.
  • Anonymous. 1981. Mammalian safety of microbial agents for vector control: a WHO Memorandum. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 59(6): 857-863.
  • Anonymous. 1981. The least injurious preparations in individual orchards and vegetable gardens. Zashchita Rastenii 4: 52-53.
  • Anonymous. 1965. Biological control. La lutte biologique. Rapp gen Table ronde Deleg gen Rech sci tech 119.
  • Apostolov, V.I. 1990. The olive moth. Zashchita Rastenii (7): 27.
  • Arshad, A., M.A. Chowdhury, A.F.M. Aslam, M. Ameen, M.I. Hossain and D.B. Habiba. 2000. Field trials with Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis commercial formulations against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in suburban Dhaka, Bangladesh. Medical Entomology and Zoology 51(4): 257-264.
  • Audemard, H. and Y. Lespinasse. 1987. Application of supervised control to the protection of apple orchards. [L’application de la lutte raisonnee a la protection du verger de pommiers.] Comptes Rendus de l’ Academie d’ Agriculture de France 73(5): 29-39.
  • Battisti, A. 2004. Current trends of forest protection from insect pests in Italy. [Orientamenti attuali nella difesa del bosco dagli insetti in Italia.] Informatore Fitopatologico 54(10): 6-12.
  • Baumgart, M., K. vom Brocke and M.H. Crow. 1997. Control of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) in organic gardening systems with Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego (M-One) and new products from the neem tree (NeemAzal-F and AlignTM), pp. 67-73. In: H. Kleeberg and C.P.W. Zebitz (eds.), Practice-Oriented Results on Use and Production of Neem Ingredients and Pheromones. Wetzlar, Germany.
  • Becker, N. 2002. Sterilization of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis products by gamma radiation. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 18(1): 57-62.
  • Becker, N. 1998a. Biorational control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes with special emphasis on community participation. Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne 44(4): 759.
  • Becker, N. 1998b. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) against mosquitoes, with special emphasis on the ecological impact. Israel Journal of Entomology 32: 63-69.
  • Becker, N. 1992. Community participation in the operational use of microbial control agents in mosquito control programs. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 114-118.
  • Becker, N. and B.Z. Xu. 1990. Microbial control of mosquitoes in West Germany and the Hubei Province of the People’s Republic of China. Israel Journal of Entomology 23: 39-44.
  • Bentley, W., S. Steffan, S. Johnson and G. van Sickle. 2004. Integrated pest management of arthropod pests in stone fruits. Bulletin OILB/SROP 27(8): 45-48.
  • Besnard, Y. and M. Boudet. 2004. Bacillus thuringiensis sp. aizawai ? Insecticide against grape berry moths and noctuids. [Le Bacillus thuringiensis sp. aizawai ? Insecticide contre les tordeuses et les chenilles defoliatrices.] Phytoma 575: 46-47.
  • Bixby, A., S.R. Alm, K. Power, P. Grewal and S.R. Swier. 2007. Susceptibility of four species of turfgrass-infesting scarabs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100 (5): p. 1604-1610.
  • Bolay, F.K. and M. Trpis. 1990. Control of mosquitoes with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and larvivorous fish, Tilapia nilotica, in rice fields in Liberia, West Africa. Israel Journal of Entomology 23: 77-82.
  • Bordas, E., R. Gabarra, O. Alomar and C. Castane. 1985. Integrated control in market-gardens in Catalonia: present and future. [La lutte integree dans les cultures maraicheres en Catalogne: present et futur.] Bulletin SROP 8(1): 1-9.
  • Brar, S.K., M. Verma, R.D. Tyagi and J.R. Valero. 2006. Recent advances in downstream processing and formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides. Process Biochemistry 41(2): 323-342.
  • Brookes, M.H., R.W. Stark and R.W. Campbell. 1978. The Douglas-fir tussock moth [ Orgyia pseudotsugata ]: a synthesis. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin, 1585. 331 pp.
  • Brown, M.D. , T.M. Watson, S. Green, J.G. Greenwood, D. Purdie and B.H. Kay. 2000. Toxicity of insecticides for control of freshwater Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) to the nontarget shrimp, Caradina indistincta (Decapoda: Atyidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 93(3): 667-672.
  • Burges, H.D. and N.W. Hussey. 1971. Microbial Control of Insects and Mites. Academic Press, London & New York.
  • Carlson, D.B., P.D. O’Bryan and J.R. Rey. 1999. Florida ‘s salt-marsh management issues: 1991-98. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 15(2): 186-193.
  • Casida, J.E. and G.B. Quistad. 2004. Why insecticides are more toxic to insects than people: the unique toxicology of insects. Journal of Pesticide Science 29(2): 81-86.
  • Charles, J.G., E. Collyer and V. White. 1985. Integrated control of Tetranychus urticae with Phytoseiulus persimilis and Stethorus bifidus in commercial raspberry gardens. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture 13(4): 385-393.
  • Choi, Y.C., J.O. Lee and Y.K. Kim. 1997. Present and future of microbial pesticides. Korean Journal of Weed Science 17(1): 112-123.
  • Chowanadisai, L. 1998. Factors influencing the larvicidal activity of bacterial toxin. Indian Journal of Malariology 35(2): 117-122.
  • Cranshaw, W.S., S.J. Day, T.J. Gritzmacher and R.J. Zimmerman. 1989. Field and laboratory evaluations of Bacillus thuringiensis strains for control of elm leaf beetle. Journal of Arboriculture 15(2): 31-34.
  • Culbert, D.F. 1994. An IPM approach for the control of Atala ( Eumaeus atala ) on Florida coonties ( Zamia floridana). Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 107: 427-430.
  • dalla Monta, L. 1983. The pine processionary in urban areas [La processionaria del pino nell’ambiente urbano], pp. 60-64. In: P. Giulini (ed.), L’ Albero, l’ Uomo, la Citta Atti del 2o Convegno Nazionale Tenuto a Padova.
  • Das, P.K. and D.D. Amalraj. 1997. Biological control of malaria vectors. Indian Journal of Medical Research 106: 174-197.
  • Davidson, N.A., M.G. Kinsey, L.E. Ehler and G.W. Frankie. 1992. Tobacco budworm, pest of petunias, can be managed with Bt. California Agriculture 46(4): 7-9.
  • de Barjac, H., C. Moulinier, B. Couprie, G. Giap, L. Babin and J.P. Mas. 1980. Evaluation of the larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H14 against Culicidae in natural breeding places. [Evaluation en gites naturels de l’activite larvicide du serotype H14 de Bacillus thuringiensis sur les culicides.] Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 73(3): 315-321.
  • de Giovanni, G., G. Oliva and A. Montermini. 1986. Defence strategy against the American Hyphantria. [Strategie di difesa dall’ifantria americana.] Informatore Fitopatologico 36(2): 11-15.
  • Ding, X.Z. and L.Q. Xia. 2001. Selection of a high toxic insecticide strain 4.0718 of Bacillus thuringiensis. Chinese Journal of Biological Control 17(4): 163-166.
  • Ebsworth, P. 1989. Community participation in malaria mosquito control in the Solomon Islands , pp. 229-239. In: M.F. Uren, J. Blok and L.H. Manderson (eds.), Arbovirus Research in Australia, Proceedings Fifth Symposium, Brisbane, Australia.
  • Ecobichon, D.J. 1990. Chemical management of forest pest epidemics: a case study. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 3(2): 217-239.
  • El-Bendary, M.A. 2006. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus biopesticides production. Journal of Basic Microbiology 46(2): 158-170.
  • Epstein, L., S. Bassein, F.G. Zalom and L.R. Wilhoit. 2001. Changes in pest management practice in almond orchards during the rainy season in California, USA. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 83(1/2): 111-120.
  • Favre, C.L., J.L. Sherald and N.F. Schneeberger. 1993. Gypsy moth management in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C. Journal of Arboriculture 19(3): 160-167.
  • Federici, B.A. 2005. Insecticidal bacteria: an overwhelming success for invertebrate pathology. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 89(1): 30-38.
  • Federici, B.A. 2003. Effects of Bt on non-target organisms. Journal of New Seeds 5(1): 11-30.
  • Fiedler, O.G.H. 1965. Notes on the susceptibility of millipedes (Diplopoda) to insecticides. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 27(2): 219-225.
  • Floore, T.G., J.C. Dukes, M.J. Greer and J.S. Coughlin. 1992. BONIDE – A surface oil film larvicide: laboratory and small plot efficacy studies against Aedes taeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus mosquito larvae. Journal of the Florida Mosquito Control Association 63(2): 63-67.
  • Forcada, C., E. Alcacer, M.D. Garcera and R. Martinez. 1996. Differences in the midgut proteolytic activity of two Heliothis virescens strains, one susceptible and one resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 31(3): 257-272.
  • Forrester, N.W. 1994. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis in integrated control, especially on cotton pests. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 49(1): 77-83.
  • Foschi, S. and K.V. Deseo. 1987. Prospects of microbiological control of phytophagous pests in flowering and ornamental crops in a protected environment. [Prospettive di lotta microbiologica contro i fitogfagi nelle colture floricole e ornamentali in ambiente protetto.] Difesa delle Piante 10(1): 121-125.
  • Freuler, J., G. Blandenier and H. Meyer and P. Pignon. 2003. Effects of chemical control programs against cabbage pests on ground dwelling fauna. Bulletin OILB/SROP 26(3): 371.
  • Gardener, W.A. 1988. Enhanced activity of selected combinations of Bacillus thuringiensis and beta-exotoxin against fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology 81(2): 463-469.
  • Gaugler, R. and J.R. Finney. 1982. A review of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (serotype 14) as a biological control agent of black flies (Simuliidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 12(4): 1-17.
  • Gelernter, W.D. and J.T. Trumble. 1999. Factors in the success and failure of microbial insecticides in vegetable crops. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 4(4): 301-306.
  • Ghosh, S.K., N. Laskar and S.K. Senapati. 2005. Seasonal fluctuations in the population of Thrips tabaci Lindl. in the tarai region of West Bengal and its control on brinjal. Pest Management and Economic Zoology 13(2): 185-190.
  • Gough, J.M., D.H. Kemp, R.J. Akhurst, R.D. Pearson and K. Kongsuwan. 2005. Identification and characterization of proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis with high toxic activity against the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 90(1): 39-46.
  • Grison, P. 1961. Methods of microbiological control of the pine processionary, T. pityocampa.
    [Les methodes de lutte microbiologique contre la procession-naire du pin, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.] Phytiat Phytopharm 10(4): 205-210.
  • Gupta, G.P., K.N. Katiyar and K. Sharma. 1999. Neem in the management strategies of insect pest of cotton, pp. 177-189. In: R.P. Singh and R.C. Saxena (eds), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield , USA .
  • Halperin, J. 1963. Control of pine processionary caterpillars (T. wilkinsoni ) in Israel. [Controle des chenilles processipnnaires du pin (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.) en Israel.] Review of Zoological Agriculture 62(10-12): 93-96.
  • Hanowski, J.M., G.J. Niemi, A.R. Lima and R.R. Regal. 1997. Do mosquito control treatments of wetlands affect red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus ) growth, reproduction, or behaviour? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16(5): 1014-1019.
  • Hansen, B.M. and N.B. Hendriksen. 1998. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus toxins. Bulletin OILB/SROP 21(4): 221-224.
  • Hasey, J. and W. Bentley. 2002. Year one of the Stone Fruit Pest Management Alliance. Acta Horticulturae (592): 669-674.
  • Hershey, A.E., A.R. Lima, G.J. Niemi and R.R. Regal. 1998. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and methoprene on nontarget macroinvertebrates in Minnesota wetlands. Ecological Applications 8(1): 41-60.
  • Hirak, C. 2005. Pathogenicity of some microbial insecticides against non-target beneficial fauna. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment 2(2): 35-39.
  • Ignoffo, C.M. 1980. Entomopathogens for control of insect pests of soybeans, pp. 327-341 In: F.T. Corbin (ed.), World Soybean Research Conference II: Proceedings. Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado, USA.
  • Jambulingam, P., K.M. Kuriakose, K. Gunasekaran and A.J. Manonmani. 1984. Field efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 formulations against mosquito larvae in casuarina & coconut garden pits. Indian Journal of Medical Research 80(July): 81-89.
  • Jensen, G.B., P. Larsen, B.L. Jacobsen, B. Madsen, L. Smidt and L. Andrup. 2002. Bacillus thuringiensis in fecal samples from greenhouse workers after exposure to B.thuringiensis-based pesticides. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68(10): 4900-4905.
  • Johnson, K.S., J.M. Scriber, J.K. Nitao and D.R. Smitley. 1995. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki to three nontarget Lepidoptera in field studies. Environmental Entomology 24(2): 288-297.
  • Jones, V.P., M.P. Parrella and D.R. Hodel. 1986. Biological control of leafminers in greenhouse chrysanthemums. California Agriculture 40(1-2): 10-12.
  • Kearby, W.H., D.L. Hostetter and C.M. Ignoffo. 1972. Laboratory and field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis for control of the bagworm. Journal of Economic Entomology 65(2): 477-480.
  • Khrameeva, A.V. 1972. The Riga bacterial strain of the Bacillus thuringiensis sporuliferous bacterial group, pp. 167-182. In: Y.P. Tsinovskii (ed.), The Pathology of Insects and Mites [Patalogiya nasekomykh I kleshchei].
  • Khryanina, R.A. 1984. Microbiological preparations. Zashchita Rasteni 8: 51.
  • Kishore, P. 2000. Eco-friendly viable options for formulating management strategy for insect pests of sorghum and pearl millet. Journal of Entomological Research 24(1): 63-72.
  • Kolodny-Hirsch, D.M., T. Sitchawat, T. Jansiri, A. Chenrchaivachirakul and U. Ketunuti. 1997. Field evaluation of a commercial formulation of the Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nuclear polyhedrosis virus for control of beet armyworm on vegetable crops in Thailand. Biocontrol Science and Technology 7(4): 475-488.
  • Kough, J. 2003. The safety of Bacillus thuringiensis for human consumption. Journal of New Seeds 5(1): 1-10.
  • Kreutzweiser, D.P., J.L. Gringorten, D.R. Thomas and J.T. Butcher. 1996. Functional effects of the bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on aquatic microbial communities. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 33(3): 271-280.
  • Kreutzweiser, D.P., S.B. Holmes, S.S. Capell and D.C. Eichenberg. 1992. Lethal and sublethal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on aquatic insects in laboratory bioassays and outdoor stream channels. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 49(2): 252-258.
  • Kurstak, E. 1982. Microbial and Viral Pesticides. Marcel Dekker, New York . 720 pp.
  • Lacey , L.A. 2007. Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus for mosquito control. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23 (2S): 133-163.
  • Lacey, L.A. and C.M. Lacey. 1990. The medical importance of riceland mosquitoes and their control using alternatives to chemical insecticides. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 6 (S2): 1-93.
  • Laird, M. 1980. Biocontrol in veterinary entomology. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 24: 145-177.
  • Lee, D.H., J. Machii and M. Ohba. 2002. High frequency of Bacillus thuringiensis in feces of herbivorous animals maintained in a zoological garden in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 37(4): 509-516.
  • Levot, G.W. 1995. Resistance and the control of sheep ectoparasites. International Journal for Parasitology 25(11): 1355-1362.
  • Lipa, J.J. 1992. Implications of biological pest and parasite control for the environment. [Biologiczne zwalczanie pasozytow i szkodnikow a srodowisko.] Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne 37(4): 461-470.
  • Lipa, J.J. 1976. Achievements in biological control in Poland during 1945-1975 and prospects for the future. [Osiagniecia biologicznego zwalczania szkodnikow w Polsce w latach 1945-1975 i perspektywy na przyszlosc.] Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin 59: 39-54.
  • Liu, S.G., Z.R. Yang, T.Q. Wu, Z.G. Wang and S. Zhou. 1993. The production and application in large areas of GrNPV pesticide. Acta Prataculturae Sinica 2(4): 47-50.
  • Lonc, E., M. Mazurkiewicz, W. Doroszkiewicz, A. Kopa and M. Manka. 2001. Microbial control of coleopteran larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus and Tenebrio molitor – grain pests. [Mikrobiologiczne zwalczanie larw chrzaszczy Alphitobius diaperinus i Tenebrio molitor – szkodnikow paszy.] Medycyna Weterynaryjna 57(4): 258-262.
  • Lopez-Lopez, E.V., N. Chavarria-Hernandez, P. Fernandez-Sumano and M. de la Torre. 2000. Fermentation processes for bioinsecticide production. An overview. Recent Research Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering 3: 1-20.
  • Mahieu, N. and D. Grill. 1973. The protection of market-garden crops in the Nantes region. [La protection des cultures maraicheres dans la region nantaise.] Phytoma 25(249): 17-25.
  • Manceva, S.D. , M. Pusztai-Carey, P.S. Russo and P. Butko. 2005. A detergent-like mechanism of action of the cytolytic toxin Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. Biochemistry Washington 44(2): 589-597.
  • Mandal, S.K., A. Bhattacharyya and S. Panja. 2006. Management of pests of taro, Colocasia esculenta L. (Araceae), in West Bengal. Journal of Interacademicia 10(1): 65-73.
  • Mani, M., A. Krishnamoorthy and C. Gopalakrishnan. 2005. Biological control of lepidopterous pests of horticultural crops in India – a review. Agricultural Reviews 26(1): 39-49.
  • Manonmani, A.M. and S.L. Hoti. 1995. Field efficacy of indigenous strains of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b against Anopheles subpictus larvae. Tropical Biomedicine 12(2): 141-146.
  • Manonmani, A.M., S.L. Hoti and K. Balaraman. 1987. Isolation of mosquito pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis strains from mosquito breeding habitats in Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Medical Research 86(October): 462-468.
  • Maramorosch, K. 1991. Biotechnology for Biological Control of Pests and Vectors. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton , FL. 278 pp.
  • Marrone, P.G. 1994. Present and future use of Bacillus thuringiensis in integrated pest management systems: an industrial perspective. Biocontrol Science and Technology 4(4): 517-526.
  • Martouret, D. 1975. Remarks on the titre of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis . [Remarques sur le titre des formules commerciales a base de Bacillus thuringiensis.] Entomophaga 20(1): 3-9.
  • McClintock, J.T., C.R. Schaffer and R.D. Sjoblad. 1995. A comparative review of the mammalian toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis-based pesticides. Pesticide Science 45(2): 95-105.
  • Meadows, M.P. 1993. Bacillus thuringiensis in the environment: ecology and risk assessment, pp. 193-220. In : P.F. Entwistle, J.S. Cory, M.J. Bailey and S. Higgs (eds.), Bacillus thuringiensis, an Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK .
  • Mita, S., R.C. Sharma and R.K. Jauhari. 2005. Distribution and toxicity of larvicidal bacilli ( Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus) in water samples collected from different mosquito habitats of Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Parasitology and Applied Animal Biology 14(1/2): 1-8.
  • Montermini, A. and G. Oliva. 1984. Let us learn to know the fall webworm. [Impariamo a conoscere l’ifantria americana.] Informatore Fitopatologico 34(1): 35-40.
  • Moore, R.E.B. 1982. Four registered pesticides effective against gypsy moth. Frontiers of Plant Science 34(2): 6.
  • Moreau, T.L., P.R. Warman and J. Hoyle. 2006. An evaluation of companion planting and botanical extracts as alternative pest controls for the Colorado potato beetle. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 23(4): 351-370.
  • Morris, O.N. 1980. Report of the 1979 CANUSA cooperative Bacillus thuringiensis B.T. spray trials.
    Canadian Forestry Service Report FPM-X-40. 86 pp.
  • Mukiama, T.K. and J.H.P. Kahindi. 1990. Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for mosquito malaria vector control in Kenya. Israel Journal of Entomology 23: 69-76.
  • Narsaiah, J. and K. Jamil. 1986. Preliminary studies on biological control of mosquito larvae using Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus. Entomon 11(3): 187-192.
  • Nathan, S.S., K. Kandaswamy and M. Kadarkarai. 2006. Effect of biopesticides on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 65(1): 102-107.
  • Nathan, S.S., P.G. Chung and K. Murugan. 2004. Effect of botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins on the gut enzyme of the rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Phytoparasitica 32(5): 433-443.
  • Niemczyk, E. 1980. Applying bacterial preparations against orchard pests, pp. 416-419. In: K. Russ and H. Berger (eds.), Proceedings of the International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section.
  • Niemi, G.J., A.E. Hershey, L. Shannon, J.M. Hanowski, A. Lima, R.P Axler, R.P. and R.R. Regal. 1999. Ecological effects of mosquito control on zooplankton, insects, and birds. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18 3: p. 549-559.
  • Ouzounis, K. and A. Samanidou-Voyadjoglou. 1993. Preliminary research on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis use for mosquito control in northeast Greece. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 18(2): 147-151.
  • Owusu-Ansah, F., K. Afreh-Nuamah, D. Obeng-Ofori and K.G. Ofosu-Budu. 2001. Managing infestation levels of major insect pests of garden eggs (Solanum integrifolium L.) with aqueous neem seed extracts. Journal of the Ghana Science Association 3(3): 70-84.
  • Pantuwatana, S. 1990. The prospect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus in mosquito control in Thailand. Israel Journal of Entomology 23: 51-57.
  • Pinnock, D.E., J.E. Milstead, N.F. Coe and R.J. Brand. 1974. The effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis formulations for the control of larvae of Schizura concinna on Cercis occidentalis trees in California. Entomophaga 19(3): 221-227.
  • Pinnock, D.E., K.S. Hagen, D.V. Cassidy, R.J. Brand, J.E. Milstead and R.L. Tasson. 1978. Integrated pest management in highway landscapes. California Agriculture 32(2): 33-34.
  • Porter, A.G. 1996. Mosquitocidal toxins, genes and bacteria: the hit squad. Parasitology Today 12(5): 175-179.
  • Prischepa, L. and H. Yankovskaya. 2002. Microbial control of greenhouse pests in Belarus. Bulletin OILB/SROP 25(1): 217-220.
  • Radwan, S.M.E., F.F. Shalaby, E.H. Abd-El-Karim and E.S. Mansour. 2004. The simultaneous effect of certain recommended insecticides and selective biocides on the changes in the population density of cotton leafworm and its related bioagents inhabiting cotton fields. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 82(3): 1139-1153.
  • Rao, D.V.S., A. Gangadhar, G.V. Subbaratnam and C.P.C. Kumar. 2001. Management of the stem borer, Azygophleps scalaris (F.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) on sesbania prop crop in betelvine gardens. Pest Management and Economic Zoology 9(1): 11-17.
  • Rao, N.B.V.C., V.S. Singh and C. Subash. 2006. Studies on safety of insecticides to some natural enemies in rice ecosystem. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 3(1): 21-26.
  • Regniere, J. and B. Cooke. 1998. Validation of a process-oriented model of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki efficacy against spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Environmental Entomology 27(4): 801-811.
  • Reitz, S.R., G.S. Kund, W.G. Carson, P.A. Phillips and J.T. Trumble. 1999. Economics of reducing insecticide use on celery through low-input pest management strategies. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 73(3): 185-197.
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Industry/Popular Articles (Not Reviewed)

  • Brenner, L. 1992. Asian Gypsy Moth update: helicopters spray B.t. while residents’ questions are left unanswered. Journal of Pesticide Reform 12(2): 16.
  • Ginsburg, C. 2006. Aerial spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk). Journal of Pesticide Reform 26(2): 13-16.
  • Treakle, K. 1990. The World Bank, DDT purveyor to the Amazon. Garden New York 14(4): 2-4.